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May 23, 2019
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al-Qadr – Destiny

The Mureed (seeker) and the Muraad (sought)
Each bird is twice born
Before they learn to sojourn,
Duckling born in the hen’s nest
Follows the chicks like the rest,
The pond is where she faces her test
To enter the water at nature’s bequest,
Be brave O little one,
You’re not a chick but of swan
Fate will deliver when the time is right
So follow the instinct in your heart!
Mortals play the game of chances
But Providence provides without fail and hindrance,
This is known by different names
Telos, taqdir, even karma and fate.

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem

It is said that all the Companions of the Prophet, may Allah be pleased with them, were his seekers who sought him, while Hazrat Umar (RA) was sought by the Prophet himself (SAW). Hence the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon, prayed, “O Allah, strengthen Islam with either ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab or ‘AmribnHisham (Abu Jahal) whomsoever Thou pleaseth.”

The following day, in the year C.E. 616, Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, set out to kill the Holy Prophet, peace be on him, after a counsel held by the Qureish of Makkah, alleging the Prophet was endangering the prevalent socio-political order of the society. On the way he met Nuaim bin Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, who was a friend of Umar. Nuaim asked Umar what he was up to. Umar said that he was going to slay Muhammad (peace be on him), and thus vindicate the gods of Ka’bah. Nuaim said! “Beware if you harm Muhammad (peace be on him) you will not be safe from the fury of BanuHashim. Desist from such a course in your own interest”. Umar retorted: “It appears you have also become a Muslim.” Nuaim said, “Umar, do not bother about me, but take care of your sister and brother-in-law who have been converted to Islam, and who may be reading the Quran at this very moment.”

This is exactly what he found them doing. After a scuffle with his sister and brother-in-law, he enquired what they were reading? So it was recited:

“Ta Ha

We have not sent the Qur’an to thee,

To be an occasion for thy distress,

But only as an admonition to those who fear God.

A revelation from Him,

Who created the earth and the heavens on high.

God most gracious,

Is firmly established on the throne of authority.

To Him belongs what is in the heavens and on earth,

And all between them and all beneath the soil.

If thou pronounce the word aloud, it’s no matter

For verily He knoweth what is secret

And what is yet hidden.

Verily there is no god but He

To Him belongs the most beautiful names.” (Qur’an 20: 1-8)

From his sister’s house, Umar (RA) proceeded to the house of Arqam (RA) of the Safa hill, where the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, was staying.

Umar knocked at the door. The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, came out of his cell, “Leave him Let him come forward”.

The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him asked, “Has the time not come for you to see the truth?”

Umar replied, “Verily the time has come for me to see the truth. I have come to profess my faith in Islam”.

The Holy Prophet stretched his hand. Umar held the hand with reverence and said, “I declare that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God”.[1]

Hazrat Umar, may Allah Be pleased with him, was the fortieth person to embrace Islam, became the second caliph in Islam, the first ruler to provide a welfare state in history, who ruled over one third of the world’s population. Not just Rome but lands even far as modern Germany have arguably contributed to his jizya. This is very much in contrast to his earlier life where he says, ‘There is no god but Allah, the Most High, the Most Great, the One Who gives Whatever He wills to whomever He wills. I used to tend the camels of al-Khattab in this valley, wearing a woollen garment. He was harsh; he would exhaust me when I worked and beat me if I fell short. And how here I am, with no one between me and Allah.'”

Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al-Makhzoomi narrated that his father said:” ‘Umar ibn al-KhattabRadia-allahuanhu called out that prayer was about to begin, and when the people had gathered and said takbeer, he ascended the minbar and praised and glorified Allah as He deserves, and sent blessings and peace upon His Prophet, then he said: “O’ people, I remember when I used to tend the flocks of my maternal aunts of BanuMakhzoom, and they would give me a handful of dates or raisins, which would be sufficient for the day, and what a day that was!”

Then he came down, and ‘Abdur-Rahmanibn ‘Awf said to him: “O’ Ameer al-Mu’mineen, all you did was to denigrate yourself.” He said, “Woe to you, O’ son of ‘Awf! I was alone and I started to think. I said to myself, ‘You are the caliph, who is better than you?’ So I wanted to remind myself of what I am.”

Min ayyi shay-in khalaqahu

Min nutfatinkhalaqahufaqaddarahu

Thummaalssabeelayassarahu

Thummaamatahufaaqbarahu

(Thummaithashaaansharahu)

Kallalammayaqdimaamarahu

From what stuff hath He created him?

From a sperm-drop: He hath created him, and then mouldeth him in due proportions;

Then doth He make His path smooth for him;

Then He causeth him to die, and putteth him in his grave;

Then, when it is His Will, He will raise him up (again).

By no means hath he fulfilled what Allah hath commanded him. (Qur’an 80: 18-23)

Faqaddarahu has the same roots Q-D-R or qadr. The roots of this word signify power, proportion, determination, predestination and decree among other things.

This has been expressed differently according to race and culture and over history, whether it is called fate, telos, karma or predestination.

Teleology

“Imagine not being able to distinguish the real cause from that without which the cause would not be able to act as a cause. It is what the majority appear to do, like people groping in the dark; they call it a cause, thus giving it a name that does not belong to it. That is why one man surrounds the earth with a vortex to make the heavens keep it in place, another makes the air support it like a wide lid. As for their capacity of being in the best place they could possibly be put, this they do not look for, nor do they believe it to have any divine force, but they believe that they will some time discover a stronger and more immortal Atlas to hold everything together more, and they do not believe that the truly good and ‘binding’ binds and holds them together.”

Plato, Phaedo, 99BC

‘… every substance not only possess a form; one could say it is also possessed by a form, for it naturally strives to realise its inherent form. It strives to become a perfect specimen of its kind. Every substance seeks to actualise what it is potentially.’ (Tarnas p.58)

Nature adapts the organ to the function, and not the function to the organ.

– Aristotle, De PartibusAnimalium

(On the Parts of Animals)

Nothing in the body is made in order that we may use it. What happens to exist is the cause of its use.

– Lucretius, De RerumNatura

(On the Nature of Things)

Predestination

Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation, as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz). [Qur’an 54/49]

“No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves

but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees — (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz),

before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah”

The Noble Qur’an Al-Hadid 57:22

Say: “Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us. He is our Maula (Lord, Helper and Protector).” And in Allah let the believers put their trust. At-Tauba 9:51

And everything, small and big is written (in Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz already beforehand i.e. before it befalls, or is done by its doer). Al-Qamar 54:53

To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight, And you will not, unless (it be) that Allâh wills, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists). At-Takwir 81:28-29

Hadith – SahihBukhari 4:621, Narrated Abu Huraira

Allah’s Apostle said, “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam, ‘You are Adam whose mistake expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said to him, ‘You are Moses whom Allah selected as His Messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly; yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my creation?'” Allah’s Apostle said twice, “So, Adam overpowered Moses.”

Hadith – SahihBukhari 6:469, Narrated ‘Ali

We were in the company of the Prophet in a funeral procession at Baqi Al-Gharqad. He said, “There is none of you but has his place written for him in Paradise or in the Hell- Fire.” They said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Shall we depend (on this fact and give up work)?” He said, “Carry on doing (good deeds), for everybody will find it easy to do (what will lead him to his destined place).” Then he recited “As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah, and believes in the Best reward from Allah (i.e. Allah will compensate him for what he will spend in Allah’s way). So, We will make smooth for him the path of ease. But he who is a greedy miser…for him, the path for evil.” (92.5-10)

Hadith – Bukhari, Narrated Anas bin Malik

The Prophet said, “Allah has appointed an angel in the womb, and the angel says, ‘O Lord! A drop of discharge (i.e. of semen), O Lord! a clot, O Lord! a piece of flesh.’ And then, if Allah wishes to complete the child’s creation, the angel will say. ‘O Lord! A male or a female? O Lord! wretched or blessed (in religion)? What will his livelihood be? What will his age be?’ The angel writes all this while the child is in the womb of its mother.”

Hadith – Tirmidhi and Ahmad, Narrated MataribnUkamis

Allah’s Messenger said: When Allah decrees that a person is to die in a certain land, He creates a need for him to go there.

Hadith – Tirmidhi and Ahmad, Narrated AbudDarda’

Allah’s Messenger said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, has ordained for every servant amongst His creation five things: his death, his action, his abode, the places of his moving about and his means of sustenance.

Hadith – Al-Tirmidhi, Narrated Thawban [Transmitted by IbnMajah.]

Allah’s Messenger said: “Only supplication averts the decree, only kindness prolongs life, and a man is deprived of provision for a fault he commits.”

Hadith – Al-Muwatta 46.4

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ziyadibn Sad from Amribn Muslim that Tawus al-Yamani said, “I found some of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying ‘Everything is by decree.’ ” Tawus added, “I heard Abdullah ibn Umar say that The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Everything is by decree – even incapacity and ability,’ (or ‘ability and incapacity’).”

Happiness Depends on Contentment with Qadar

Hadith – al-Tirmidhi # 2151.[Classed as saheeh by al-Haakim, 1/699, and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. It was classed as hasan by al-HaafizibnHajar in Fath al-Baari, 11/184]

The happiness of the son of Adam depends on his being content with what Allah has decreed for him, and the misery of the son of Adam results from his failure to pray istikhaarah, and the misery of the son of Adam results from in his discontent with what Allah has decreed for him.

[1] Source, http://www.islamforlife.co.uk/khalifa_umar_bin_al….

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